Leeds University Library

Numeric style references


Reference list vs. bibliography

What are reference lists and bibliographies?

A reference list is a list of the citations that have appeared in the body of your work. 

A bibliography lists all the sources you have consulted in your research and, because it includes sources you may not have cited in your work, is usually arranged alphabetically by surname. 

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.

When using the Numeric style, you will need to include a reference list, listing citations in the order that they first appear in your work. Repeated citations to the same item have the same number within the text as the first citation.

If you are also required to include a full bibliography, it should be arranged alphabetically by family name of the author (as references that you have not cited in your work will not be numbered).


Common issues when referencing

Two authors

Include both authors in the reference.

Family name, INITIAL(S). and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Ahmed, T. and Meehan, N. Advanced reservoir management and engineering. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2012.

More than two authors

Include the first author, then use et al. in place of other authors.

Family name, INITIAL(S). (for first author) et al. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Clayden, J. et al. Organic chemistry. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Editor(s)

If you are referencing a book with an editor rather than an author, this should be indicated in the reference.

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed. Title. Edition (only if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Crandell, K.A. ed. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1999.

Wexler, P. et al. eds. Chemicals, environment, health: a global management perspective. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2012.

For an edited book with chapters written by different authors, see Book chapter (in an edited book).

Corporate author(s)

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of an individual author. This could include government departments, universities and companies. Just cite them in the text in the same way as you would an individual author.

Department of Health. Winter flu vaccination begins. [Online]. 2011. [Accessed 19 October 2011]. Available from:  http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/2011/10/winter-flu/

Publisher details

Multiple publisher details

If multiple publishers are listed, you should include only the first publisher listed, (or the British one if it is a choice between a UK and an overseas publisher) in your reference list or bibliography.

Multiple places of publication

If multiple places of publication listed, you should use the first place name given when writing your reference list.

If there is a town and county/state on the title page, you should just give the town. However, if there is more than one well known town of that name you might want to give the state as well to make it clear.

Stern, D.N. The first relationship: infant and mother. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Missing details (no author, no date etc.)

No author

First check whether there is a corporate author. If there is no individual or corporate author it is acceptable to use Anon for work that is anonymous.

No date

If you are referencing a book which has only a copyright year, you can use this date preceded with a c, eg c2008.

If there is no publication date and no copyright date, use [no date].

Jones, M. Citations and referencing. London: Longmans, Green and Co. [no date].

No page numbers 

Page numbers are normally only included in your reference list or bibliography for a few types of reference, eg journal articles, newspapers, chapters in edited books. If the source has no page numbers, use [no pagination].

Example:

Pajunen, K. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 2008, 39(4), [no pagination]. 

No publisher or place of publication

If you are unable to identify the publisher, or the place of publication, use [no publisher] or [no place], as appropriate.

Long URLs

Some online journal articles and webpages have very long URLs. The Library recommends that you only put the URL as far as the first forward slash /.

For example:

Available from: http://0-web.ebscohost.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

Rather than:
Available from: http://0-web.ebscohost.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/bsi/detail?vid=4&hid=7&sid=27735707-0bdb-468e-a7a6-47ea3c7c036c@sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9YnNpLWxpdmU=#db=buh&AN=3891036

How to reference different sources 



A

Act of Parliament

Title of the Act and year. (chapter number of the act; abbreviated to 'c.'). Place of publication: Publisher.

Access to Justice Act 1999. (c.22). London: The Stationery Office.

For Acts published before 1963 you must also include some additional information:

Title of the Act and year. (Year of reign of the monarch at the time the Act was introduced, the monarch's name which can be abbreviated, chapter number of the Act) Place of publication: Publisher.

Homicide Act 1957. (5&6 Eliz.2, c.11). London: HMSO.

Citing in your text

App

See mobile app.

Article

Artwork

See Work of art.

B

Bible

Blog

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of blog entry. Date blog entry written. Title of blog. [Online]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Beard, M. To curtsey or not to curtsey? 8 June. A Don's Life. [Online]. 2013. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://timesonline.typepad.com/

Brotherton Library. 2009. Leeds Read. 17 February. Brotherton blog. [Online]. 2009. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://brothertonblog.blogspot.com/

Citing in your text

Book

One author

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Adams, A.D. Electric transmission of water power. New York: McGraw, 1906.

Two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Ahmed, T. and Meehan, N. Advanced reservoir management and engineering. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2012.

More than two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S). (for first author) et al. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Clayden, J. et al. Organic chemistry. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Editor(s)

If you are referencing a book with an editor rather than an author, this should be indicated in the reference.

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed. Title. Edition (only if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Crandell, K.A. ed. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1999.

Wexler, P. et al. eds. Chemicals, environment, health: a global management perspective. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2012.

For an edited book with chapters written by different authors, see Book chapter (in an edited book).

Author and editor(s) 

Family name, INITIAL(S) of author. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Family name, INITIAL(S) of editor. ed(s). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Hobbes, T. Leviathan. Malcolm, N. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Citing in your text

Book (online)

See e-book.

Book chapter (in an edited book)

If you are referencing a book with chapters written by different authors, you need to give details of the chapter, and the book in which you read it.

Family name, INITIAL(S). Chapter title. In: Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed(s). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, year, page numbers.

Coffin, J.M. Molecular biology of HIV. In: Crandell, K.A. ed. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1999, pp.3-40.

Citing in your text

Book introduction, foreword or preface

Written by author

If the introduction, foreword or preface is written by the primary author of the book, reference it using the same format as book.

Written by editor (when there is an author and an editor)

If the introduction, foreword or preface is written by the editor of the book:

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). Introduction (or Foreword or Preface). In: Family name, INITIAL(S) of book author. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Family name, INITIAL(S) of editor. ed(s). Place of publication: Publisher, year, page numbers.

Malcolm, N. Introduction. In: Hobbes, T. Leviathan. Malcolm, N. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp.1-6.

Written by third party

If the introduction, foreword or preface is written by someone other than the primary author or editor:

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of introduction author). Introduction (or Foreword or Preface). In: Family name, INITIAL(S) (of book author). Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year, page numbers.

Amis, K. Foreword. In: Ulanov, B. A handbook of jazz. London: Hutchinson, 1958, i-iv.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them (see example above). 

Citing in your text


C

CD-ROM

Title. [CD-ROM]. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Who's who 1897-1998. [CD-ROM]. London: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Citing in your text

Census statistics

For print statistics, reference this using the same format as Book.

For electronic statistics, reference this using the same format as Website.

Chapter in an edited book

Clinical guidelines

Clinical guidelines (physical copy)

Organisation. Title of guidance. [No. of guidance if available]. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes: the management of type 2 diabetes (update). [CG66]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2008.

Clinical guidelines (online) 

Organisation. Year. Title of guidance. [No. of guidance if available]. [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher, year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL 

The Royal College of Surgeons. Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Dental Erosion. [Online]. London: The Royal College of Surgeons, 2013. [Accessed 25 March 2014]. Available from: http://www.rcseng.ac.uk/fds/publications-clinical-guidelines/clinical_guidelines/documents/diagnosis-prevention-and-management-of-dental-erosion

Citing in your text

Command paper

Government department/committee/organisation. Title. (Command no.). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Home Office. Identity cards: the next steps. (Cm.6020). London: The Stationery Office, 2003.

Check which abbreviation is required for Command, as this varies for different historical periods.

Citing in your text

Conference paper or Conference proceedings

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of paper. In: Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor if known). ed. Title of conference, date of conference, location of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, year, page number(s).

Robertson, J. The economics of local recovery. In: The other economic summit, 17/18 April 1986, Tokyo. London: The Other Economic Summit, 1986, pp.5-10.

Citing in your text

Conference presentation

Conference presentation

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the presenter). Title of the presentation. Title of conference, location of conference, date and year of conference.

Newton, A.J. and Pullinger, D.J. Acting on PhD student feedback to create new learning resources. Librarians' Information Literacy Annual Conference, Glasgow, 11 April 2012.

Slides from a conference presentation

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the presenter). Title of the presentation [PowerPoint presentation]. Title of conference, location of conference, date and year of conference. 

Newton, A.J. and Pullinger, D.J. Acting on PhD student feedback to create new learning resources [PowerPoint presentation]. Librarians' Information Literacy Annual Conference, Glasgow, 11 April 2012.

Citing in your text

Congress Hearing (US)

US House. Committee. Title. Hearing, date. Washington: Government Printing Office, Year.

US House. Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities. Child care and child welfare. Hearing, 3 February. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995.

Citing in your text

Conversation


D

Dance

Live performance

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the choreographer). Title. [Date seen and where]. Year of première.

Ashton, F. Dante sonata, The Royal Ballet. [Performance viewed 10 July 2004, Lincoln Centre, New York]. 1940.

Recording

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the director/producer). dir./prod. (depending on whether director or producer) Title of video or programme. [Type of medium, eg video]. Production company or Publisher [further details to identify dance works]. Year published or first transmission.

Lockyer, B. dir. Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet. [Video for television transmission]. BBC TV in association with R.M. Productions Munich [Les Patineurs, Ashton; Pineapple Poll, Cranko]. 1979.

Citing in your text

Dictionary

Dissertation


E

E-book (online or via e-book reader)

e-book online

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. [Online]. Edition (only if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Hollensen, S. Global marketing: a decision oriented approach. [Online]. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2010. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://www.myilibrary.com/Browse/open.asp?ID=60094

e-book reader format, eg Kindle

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. Edition (if not first edition). [Name of e-book reader]. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Wu, T. The master switch: the rise and fall of information empires. [Kindle DX e-book]. London: Atlantic Books, 2010.

Citing in your text

E-journal

Email

Encyclopaedia

EU COM documents

Title, COM (Year) serial number, draft or final.

Proposal for a Council regulation on denominations and technical specifications of euro coins intended for circulation, COM (2010) 0691, final.

This is all in italics and the title is not capitalised.

Citing in your text

EU legislation

Regulations

Institutional origin (eg European Commission or Council of the European Union) Regulation (Treaty abbreviation) number/year followed by the date it was passed and the title.

Council Regulation (EC) No. 2725/2000 of 11 December 2000 concerning the establishment of 'Eurodac' for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of the Dublin Convention.

Directives and Decisions

Institutional origin (eg European Commission or Council of the European Union) Form Year/legislation number/Treaty followed by the date it was passed and the title.

Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption.

This is all in italics and the title is not capitalised.

Citing in your text

Exhibition catalogue

Family name, INITIAL(s) (of author or editor). Title of exhibition, venue, date. [Exhibition catalogue]. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Krystof, D. and Morgan, J. Martin Kippenberger exhibition catalogue, Tate Modern, 8 February-14 May. [Exhibition catalogue]. London: Tate Publishing, 2006.

Citing in your text


F

Facebook

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of page. [Facebook]. Date post written. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Smith, A. Referencing Group. [Facebook]. 4 November. 2012. [Accessed 10 June 2013. Available from: http://www.facebook.com

Citing in your text

Figures, tables and diagrams

You should provide an in-text citation for any photographs, images, tables, diagrams, graphs, figures or illustrations that you reproduce in your work.

The full reference should direct the reader to the source (eg the book or website) from which the item was taken.

Citing in your text

Film

Title. [Medium]. Full name of director. dir. Place of production: Production company, year.

Citizen Kane. [Film]. Orson Welles. dir. USA: RKO Radio Pictures, 1941.

Citing in your text

Foreign Language Material

Reference the exact text used, in the same style as you would reference English language material.

Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Foucault, M. 1971. L'archéologie du savoir. Paris: NRF/Gallimard.

When referencing foreign language material where the information is written using another alphabet, such as Japanese, you should transliterate (not translate) the details into the English alphabet.

Example:
鷲田清一. 京都の平熱 : 哲学者の都市案内. 東京: 講談社. 2007.

Washida, K. Kyōto no heinetsu: tetsugakusha no toshi annai. Tōkyō: Kōdansha. 2007.

Citing in your text


G

Google Earth images

Google Earth version (if applicable). Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Data set (if applicable). Year data released. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Google Earth 5.0. 2009. Leeds University, 53°48'28.60"N, 1°33'11.95"W, elev 63km. Clouds data layer. 2009. [Accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from: http://code.google.com/apis/earth/

All uses of Google Earth require copyright attribution.

Citing in your text

Government document or departmental circular (UK)

For paper copies, reference these using the same format as book.

For online copies, reference these using the same format as e-book.

Use the Government department/committee/organisation as the author. 

Example: 

Lord Chancellor's Department and Department of Health. Child witness pack. London: Home Office, 1993.

Citing in your text


H

Hansard

Hansard Name of House abbreviated (ie HC or HL) Deb. vol. number col. number(s), date.

Hansard HC Deb. vol.492 cols.25-6, 5 May 2009.

Citing in your text

House of Commons / Lords Papers

Government department/committee/organisation. Title. (House name abbreviated (ie HC or HL) series number, parliamentary session). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

National Audit Office. Returning failed asylum applicants. (HC 76, 2005-06). London: The Stationery Office, 2005.

Citing in your text


I

Illustration

Image

If you refer to an image that you have found in a printed source, eg a book, you must provide a reference for that source.

It is not necessary to provide a reference in your bibliography for an image that you have created yourself.

Online image

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the originator). Title of image. [Online]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Bowry, J. Telephone boxes in the snow. [Online]. 2013. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://www.flickr.com/

Newry Institute. Current student. [Online]. 2002. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://www.nkifhe.ac.uk/

Picasso, P. The Dance. [Online]. 1925. [Accessed 4 March 2014]. Available from: www.oxfordartonline.com

Original image or photograph

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the originator). Title. Year. [Material type]. At: Place: holding institution, department (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable).

Roux, E. Photograph taken at Gallipoli by Ernest Roux. 1915. [Photograph]. At: Leeds: Leeds University Library. Liddle Collection, FR 31.

Original image or photograph (missing details)

If there is no originator, start your reference with the image title. If there is no title, start with a description.

Title. Year. [Material type]. At: Place: holding institution, department (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable).

Photograph of two members of the Shaikevich family. c1920. [Photograph]. At: Leeds: Leeds University Library, Leeds Russian Archive Collection. MS 1210.

Check with your tutor about the most appropriate way to present images in your work, eg including a list of images in an appendix.

Citing in your text

Interview

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of interviewee). Interview with (name of interviewer). Location, date and year.

Thompson, D. Interview with J. Smith. Leeds, 4 August 2008.

It is not necessary to provide a reference in your bibliography for an interview that you have conducted yourself.

Check with your tutor about the most appropriate way to present this in your work, eg including transcripts in an appendix. You may also need to seek permission from the interviewee(s).

Citing in your text

Informal or in-house publication

For informal publications, such as leaflets, provide what details you can: 

Family name, INITIAL(S) (or company name). Title. [Leaflet]. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Leeds University Library. Workshop timetable semester 1 2012-13. [Leaflet]. Leeds: University of Leeds, 2012.

Citing in your text


J

Journal article

One author

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers.

Pajunen, K. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 200839(4), pp.652-669.

Two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers.

Gutenberg, B. and Richter, C.F. Magnitude and energy of earthquakes. Annals of Geophysics. 2010, 53(1), pp.7-12.

More than two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S) et al. Title of article. Journal Title. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers.

MacNaughton, S.J. et al. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1999, 65(8), pp.3566-3574.

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

Citing in your text

Journal article (forthcoming)

Occasionally an article may be made available online before being formally published in an issue of the journal.

If you know the year that article will be published:
Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year Forthcoming. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Royall, C.P. et al. Radiation damage of water in environmental scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy. [Online]. 2013 Forthcoming. [Accessed 4 November 2012]. Available from: http://0-www3.interscience.wiley.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

If you don't know the year that article will be published:
Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online].  Forthcoming. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Royall, C.P. et al. Radiation damage of water in environmental scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy. [Online]. Forthcoming. [Accessed 4 November 2012]. Available from : http://0-www3.interscience.wiley.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

Citing in your text

Journal article (online)

One author

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

El Gharras, H. Polyphenols: food sources, properties and applications - a review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. [Online]. 2009, 44(12), pp.2512-2518. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S). and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Selmke, M. and Cichos, F. Photonic Rutherford scattering: a classical and quantum mechanical analogy in ray and wave optics. American Journal of Physics. [Online]. 2013, 81(6), pp.405-413. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://0-scitation.aip.org.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

More than two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S). et al. Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Royall, C.P. et al. Radiation damage of water in environmental scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy. [Online]. 2001, 204(3), pp.185-195. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://0-www3.interscience.wiley.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

Citing in your text


L

Law report

The examples below follow the accepted conventions for referencing law reports.

If the year is crucial to identify the report, enclose it in square brackets:
Parties in the case [Year] Abbreviation of law report Page.

Jones v. Smith [1934] All ER 123.

If the law report has a volume number, and so the year is not crucial to find the case, enclose it in round brackets:
Parties in the case (Year) Volume number Abbreviation of law report Page.

R. v. Williams (1992) 2 WLR 32.

Citing in your text

Leaflet

Lecture

For lectures in modules, see Module lectures and materials.

For public lectures, see Speech.

Letter


M

Magazine article

Manuscript

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. [Material type]. Year. At: Place: holding institution, department (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable).

Colvil, S. The mock poem, I-II. [Manuscript]. c.1680. At: Leeds: Leeds University Library, Brotherton Collection. MS Lt 1.

c. is an abbreviation of "circa", meaning "approximately". You may find that this is used in dates for old manuscripts.

Citing in your text

Map

Map

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator). Title, scale. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Mason, J. Map of the countries lying between Spain and India, 1:8,000,000. London: Ordnance Survey, 1832.

Map (online)

Originator(s). Image details - location (format if available), scale if available. [Online]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Google Maps. Leeds University (satellite). [Online]. 2009. [Accessed 16 November 2012]. Available from: http://tinyurl.com/ylx3zwy

Ordnance Survey. Leeds University, 1:125,000 [online]. 2009. [Accessed 16 November 2012]. Available from: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap

Citing in your text

Microform

FAMILY NAME, INITIAL(S). Title. [Medium]. Available: Title of microform collection: reel number/ fiche number. Year.

Adson, J. Courtly masquing ayres, composed to 5. and 6. parts, for violins, consorts, and cornets. [Microfilm]. Available: Early English books, 1475-1640: 906:1. 1621.

Citing in your text

Mobile App

Relevant details for the application should be available from the app store where it was purchased, eg iTunes App Store.

Developer. Title of app (version number). [Mobile app]. Year. [Date accessed].

Blackboard Inc. Blackboard mobile learn (version 3.1.4). [Mobile app]. 2013. [Accessed 15 May 2013].

Citing in your text

Module lectures and materials

Not all lecturers are happy for you to cite directly from lectures, so it is good practice to check this with your tutor. If the lecturer is drawing from a published source, you should find that source for use in your own work (you can always ask for reading suggestions if you like an idea).

Lecture

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the lecturer). Lecture title. MODULE CODE Title of module. Teaching organisation, date and year.

Voltmer, K. Politicians and the press: models of interaction. COMM5610 Politics and the Media. University of Leeds, 17 April 2006.

Lecture handouts

Family name, INITIAL(S). Lecture title. Lecture notes distributed in MODULE CODE Title of module. Teaching organisation, date and year.

Voltmer, K. Politicians and the press: models of interaction. Lecture notes distributed in COMM5610 Politics and the Media. University of Leeds, 17 April 2006.

Module materials accessed in the VLE

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the lecturer). Title. [Format accessed through the VLE, eg PowerPoint slides]. MODULE CODE Title of module. Teaching organisation, year.

Voltmer, K. Politicians and the press: models of interaction. [PowerPoint slides accessed through the VLE]. COMM5610 Politics and the Media. University of Leeds, 2006.

Citing in your text

Monograph

See book.

Music

Recorded music

Individual piece of recorded music:

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator/composer). Title. Name of recording artist. Title of album. [Medium]. Place of recording: Label, year.

Gallagher, N. Live forever. Oasis. Definitely maybe. [CD]. Manchester: Creation Records, 1994.

Album:

Name of recording artist. Title of album. [Medium]. Place of recording: Label, year. 

Oasis. Definitely maybe. [CD]. Manchester: Creation Records, 1994.

Sheet music/Musical score

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator/composer). Title. [Medium]. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication.

Handel, G.F. Serse. Ombra mai fù ; arr. [Musical Score]. London: Augener Ltd, 1890.

Live performance

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator/composer). Title. [Live performance]. Year written. Name of performing artist. Date seen, location.

Springsteen, B. Born to run. [Live performance]. 1975. Bruce Springsteen. 15 June 2013, Wembley Stadium, London.

Chopin, F._Piano Concerto No 2. [Live performance]. 1830. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. 26 January 2013, Leeds Town Hall, Leeds.

Citing in your text


N

Newspaper

Newspaper article

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Newspaper title. Date, year, page number(s).

Webster, B. New speed camera puts more drivers in the frame. The Times. 24 May, 2006, p.1.

Newspaper article (online)

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Newspaper title. [Online]. Full date. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Pope, F. Losing Nemo: is there time to save the seas? The Times. [Online]. 3 December, 2009. [Accessed 4 March 2010]. Available from: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/environment/article1844332.ece

Newspaper cartoon

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of cartoonist). Year. Title of cartoon. Newspaper title. Date, year, page number.

Bell, S. The alleged al-Qaida threat to Los Angeles. The Guardian. 10 February, 2006, p.29.

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

Citing in your text

NICE guidance

See Clinical guidelines.

When referencing NICE guidance, it is good practice to cite and quote from the full version of the guidance.


O

Online discussion list or discussion forum

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of message. Date added. Discussion group title. [Online]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Stubbings, R. Diagnostic tests. 3 August. Lis-infoliteracy. [Online]. 2005. [Accessed 18 May 2009]. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk

Citing in your text


P

Painting

Parliamentary bills

Title and year. (House name abbreviated to HC or HL Bill number, parliamentary session). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Bill 2013-14. (HC Bill 7, 2013-14). London: The Stationery Office.

Citing in your text

Parliamentary papers (UK)

Patent

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of inventor). Title of patent document. Patent number. Year.

Cashwell, E. Optical perforating apparatus and system. EP0021165 A1. 1981-01-07. 1981.

Citing in your text

Periodical

Personal communication

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of sender/speaker/author). Medium and receiver of communication, date, year of communication.

Smith, A. Conversation with Robert Jones, 24 January, 2007.
Wilkinson, P. Email to Robert Jones, 7 May, 2007.
Lyons, D. Letter to Robert Jones, 16 November, 2007.

Citing in your text

Podcast

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator). Title of episode. Title of podcast. [Podcast]. Year. [Date Accessed]. Available from: (URL/App)

BBC Radio 4. 2013-07-11 Ambridge Extra Thursday. The Archers. [Podcast]. 2013. [Accessed 12 July 2013]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/archers

Watson, A. Alan Watson (University of Leeds) - The Search for Origin of the Highest Energy Particles in Nature. Physics general interest seminar podcasts. [Podcast]. 2007. [Accessed 15 May 2013]. Available from: iTunesU.

Citing in your text

Poem

You should refer to the name of the poem and the poet in the main body of your work, and include a citation (with page numbers) to the anthology in which it appears.

In the bibliography, you should refer only to the anthology in which the poem was published.

Family name, INITIAL(S). ed(s). Title. Edition (only if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

Ferguson, M. et al. The Norton anthology of poetry. 5th ed. London: W.W. Norton, 2005.

Citing in your text

Poster

Conference poster

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the author). Title. [Poster]. Event name (if applicable), location, date and year (for where the poster was exhibited).

Brooks, I. Paper chains and octopuses: an activities based information skills session. [Poster]. Librarians' Information Literacy Annual Conference, The University of Manchester Library, 25-27 March 2012.

Poster viewed online

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the author). Title. [Online poster]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Smith, R. Did you know? Marketing information literacy training. [Online poster]. 2013. [Accessed 5 May 2013]. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/

If no author is identifiable, start the reference with the title of the poster, followed by the year.

Citing in your text

Press release

Organisation. Title. [Press release]. Year. [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL

NSPCC. NSPCC calls for better support for child witnesses. [Press release]. 2009. [Accessed 18 May 2009]. Available from: http://www.nspcc.org.uk

Citing in your text

Public lecture

See Speech.


R

Radio programme

Individual programme

Title. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and year, and time of transmission.

The Archers. BBC Radio 4. 1 September 2011, 19:00.

Series

Series title, number and title of episode (if applicable). Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and year, and time of transmission.

Book of the week, episode 3, Permanent present tense. BBC Radio 4. 17 July 2013, 09:45.

The World Tonight. BBC Radio 4. 15 July 2013, 22:00.

See also Speech: broadcast of a speech

Citing in your text

Reference work

The editor and publisher of a well-known reference work can be omitted, but cite the page numbers consulted:

Title. Edition (if not first edition). s.v. Section heading, year, page number of your quotation.

New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. s.v. Microradiography, 2005, p.1374.

s.v. stands for "sub verbo", this means "look under" and directs the reader to find it under another heading, in this case the section.

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

Citing in your text

Reference work (online)

Title. [Online]. Edition (if not first edition). s.v. Section heading, year, page number of your quotation (if available). [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Oxford English Dictionary. [Online]. 15th ed. s.v. Microradiography, 2005, p.1374. [Accessed 7 January 2014]. Available from: www.oed.com

Electronic pocket dictionary

Title. [Name of e-dictionary reader]. s.v. Section heading, year, page number of your quotation (if available).

Oxford Crossword Dictionary. [Seiko ER3200 Oxford Crossword Solver Pocket Dictionary]. s.v. Microradiography, 2005, p.1374.

Citing in your text

Religious text

Title: including version

The Bible: authorised King James version.

The Qurʼan: a modern English version

Citing in your text

Report

For paper copies of reports, reference these using the same format as book.

For online copies of reports, reference these using the same format as e-book.


S

Sculpture

Senate report (US)

US Senate. Committee. Title. (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher, year.

US Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Franklin D. Roosevelt's family lands: report together with minority views (to accompany s. 134). (S. Rpt. 104-32). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995.

Citing in your text

Sound recording

Sound recording (physical copy eg on CD)

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of recordist) or Company name. Title of individual recording. Title of album. [Sound recording]. Place of recording: Label, year.

BBC. Country pub at lunchtime. Essential sound effects of England. [Sound recording]. London: BBC Enterprises, 1994.

Sound recording (online)

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of recordist) or Company name. Title. [Sound recording]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Watts, D. Oriolus larvatus: African Black-headed Oriole - Oriolidae. [Sound recording]. 1984. [Accessed 15 July 2013]. Available from: http://sounds.bl.uk

Citing in your text

Speech

Live speech

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Title of speech. Location of speech, date and year of speech.

Obama, B. A more perfect union. National Constitution Centre, Philadelphia, 18 March 2008.

Recording of a speech viewed online

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Title of speech. [Online]. Location of speech, date and year of speech. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Obama, B. A more perfect union. [Online]. National Constitution Centre, Philadelphia, 18 March 2008. [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHuDLM-xiBo

Broadcast of a speech on television or radio

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Title of speech. Location of speech, date and year of speech. Title of programme. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and year of original transmission.

Obama, B. A more perfect union. National Constitution Centre, Philadelphia, 18 March 2008. Newsnight. BBC. 1 September 2008.

Transcript of a speech

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of speaker). Title of speech. Year of speech. In: Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed(s). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, year, page numbers.

Clinton, H. Strength in resilience. 2011. In: Wilson, H. ed. Representative American speeches 2011-2012. Ipswich, MA.: H.W. Wilson, 2012, pp.97-100.

Citing in your text

Standard

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of standard author if applicable)/Organisation. Standard number. Title of standard. Place of publication: Publisher, year.

British Standards Institution. BS5605:1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. Milton Keynes: BSI, 1990.

Citing in your text

Statutory Instrument

Title of the Statutory Instrument and year. Abbreviation SI year/number. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Bathing Water Regulations 2013. SI 2013/1675. London: The Stationery Office.

Citing in your text


T

Television advertisement

Company/Product. Description of advert (duration). [Television advertisement]. Year produced. Transmitting organisation/channel. [Date seen].

Coca Cola. Santa handing bottles of coke to a girl every year at Christmas until she turns into a woman (30 secs). [Television advertisement]. 2006. ITV3. [5 December 2006].

Citing in your text

Television programme

Individual programme

Title. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and year, and time of transmission.

News at ten. ITV. 27 January 2010, 22:00.

The murder trial. Channel 4. 10 July 2013, 21:00

Episode in a series

Series title, number and title of episode (if applicable). Transmitting organisation/channel. Date and year, time of transmission.

Desperate housewives, Episode 16, Crime doesn't pay. Channel 4. 8 April 2009, 22.00.

Horizon, Kids lost in care. BBC 1. 24 June 2013, 22:00.

See also Speech: broadcast of a speech

Citing in your text

Theatre performance

Devised production

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of producer/production company). Title. Full name of director. dir. Name and location of theatre: Theatre company. First performance: date and year of first performance.

Burlinson, K and Crarer, C. Emily Wilding Davison: the one who threw herself under the horse. Kath Burlinson. dir. Smallhythe Barn Theatre, Kent: Cambridge Devised Theatre. First performance: 4 June 2013.

Production of an authored play

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of author). Title. Full name of director. dir. Name and location of theatre: Theatre company. First performance: date and year of first performance.

Shakespeare, W. Pericles, Prince of Tyre. David Thacker. dir. The Swan, Stratford-upon-Avon: Royal Shakespeare Company. First performance: 6 September 1989.

Citing in your text

Thesis or dissertation

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. Type of qualification, academic institution, year.

Dang, V.A. Three essays in financial economics. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, 2007.

Citing in your text

Translated material

You should reference exactly what you read so, if you read a translation, you should reference the translated version. There is no need to mention that it is a translation, or to name the translator - it will be obvious from your reference which language you read it in.

Reference the exact text used, in the same format (eg book or journal article) as you would reference English language material.

For example:

Foucault, M. 2002. The archaeology of knowledge. London: Routledge.

Citing in your text

Twitter

Family name, INITIAL(S) (or organisation). Full text of tweet. [Twitter]. Date and year tweet posted. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Dougill, Andy. Energising development with Jatropha curcas? Biofuel reflections from Mali in @PracticalAction briefing paper. [Twitter]. 16 April 2013. [Accessed 26 July 2013]. Available from: https://twitter.com/AndyDougill

Guardian. Bushfires in Australia leave path of destruction http://gu.com/p/3cqa4/tf. [Twitter]. 7 January 2013. [Accessed 7 January 2013]. Available from: https://twitter.com/guardian

Citing in your text


U

Unpublished documents

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. Unpublished, year (if applicable).

Fendell, R. Training and management for primary healthcare. Unpublished, [No date].

Citing in your text


V

Video

Video (recorded eg on DVD or videocassette)

Reference this using the same format as Film.

Video (online)

Screen name or username. Title. [Online]. Year. [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL

Leelefever. Twitter in plain English. [Online]. 2008. [Accessed 22 November 2011]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddO9idmax0o

Citing in your text

Video game

Title of game (edition or version). Platform [Game]. Publisher: Place of publication, year.

Assassin's Creed Brotherhood (standard edition). Xbox [Game]. Ubisoft: Montreal, 2011.

Citing in your text


W

Website or webpage

Family name, INITIAL(S) (or company name). Title. [Online]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Hawking, S. Professor Stephen Hawking's website. [Online]. 2000.[Accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from: http://www.hawking.org.uk/home/hindex.html

Environment Agency. River and coastal maintenance programmes 2013-14. [Online]. 2013. [Accessed 12 July 2013]. Available from: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk

Citing in your text

Wiki

Wiki name. Title of article. [Online]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Wikipedia. Socrates. [Online]. 2007. [Accessed 23 January 2007]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Socrate;

Citing in your text

Working paper

For paper copies, reference these using the same format as book.

For online copies, reference these using the same format as e-book

Citing in your text

Work of art

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the artist). Title. [Material type]. Year. At: Place: holding institution, department (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable).

Van Gogh, V. Sunflowers. [Oil on canvas]. 1888. At: London: National Gallery.

Gosse, S. The garden, Rowlandson House. [Etching and aquatint]. 1912. At: London: British Museum, Department of Prints and Drawings. Register number 1915-27-41.

Quentin, B. Levitating woman (maquette for 'The Dreamer'). [Ceramic sculpture]. 1982. At: Leeds: The University of Leeds, The Stanley and Audrey Burton Gallery.  LEEUA 2006.001.

Citing in your text


Y

YouTube video

Reference this using the same format as video (online).