Leeds University Library

Harvard citations


A citation is the part of the reference that you include within the main body of your work whenever you directly quote from, paraphrase, summarise or refer to work produced by another author. In the Harvard style, the citation includes the author's surname and year of publication.

You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.


Citing in the text

How to incorporate citations into your work

It is good practice to vary the way you incorporate in-text citations; this will help enhance the flow and style of your academic writing.

You may sometimes use the author's name in the text or just refer to the author in brackets and citations might appear at the start, middle or end of your sentences.

You can also refer to multiple authors at once; this will not only help to make your writing more succinct, but will improve the synthesis of sources, research or ideas within your assignments.

Examples

Biggs and Smith (2012) offer a convincing argument...

In contrast, Grayson (2012) identified the main determinant as...

Ramirez (2010), Schneider (2011) and Roberts (2013) discuss the challenges faced by...

There seems to be a correlation between students' use of the library and high degree marks (Stone and Collins, 2012)

The research of Dalton (2012) has been challenged by...

A number of studies have shown that ... (Chan, 2012; Elston, 2011; Graham, 2009; Richards, 2007)

Socio-economic factors such as class and education, as well as "hereditary determinants" (Civaner and Arda, 2008, p267), can have a detrimental effect on an individual's health. 

Citing direct quotations

In scientific writing, it is generally the case that you should paraphrase from sources, rather than quote directly. Quoting more extended sections of text tends to be more common in arts and humanities subjects where it may be appropriate to quote frequently from the literature that is being analysed.

How to incorporate and cite direct quotations in your text.


Citation details

One author

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author's surname and the date of publication in brackets:

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 2011).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
Jones (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

You should also include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

Two authors

If a source has two authors, both names should be given.

When the authors' names are not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the authors' surnames and the date of publication in brackets:

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones and Baker, 2011).

If you have already named the authors in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
Jones and Baker (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

You should also include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

Three or more authors

If a source has three or more authors' it is usual for the name of the first author to be given, followed by the phrase "et al." (which means "and others").

Example:
When the authors' names are not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the first author's surname and "et al.", followed by the date of publication, in brackets:

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).

If you have already named the authors in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
Jones et al. (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

You should also include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

Corporate author (where the author is an organisation or government department)

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of an individual author. This could include government departments, universities and companies. Just cite them in the text in the same way as you would an individual author.

When the corporate author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the corporate author and the date of publication in brackets:

Example:
According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2011).

If you have already named the corporate author in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
According to the Department of Health (2011), flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines.

You should also include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

The work of one author referred to by another author

You should always try to track down the original work, but if this is not possible and you intent to cite the ideas of one author that you have found in the work of another, your in-text citation must include the author of the ideas you are using, the source in which you found them, and the page number.

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998, cited in Carol, 2001, p.9).

In your reference list or bibliography, you should only give the details of the source in which you found the ideas. In the above example, you would include the work by Carol, 2001.

Multiple sources with different authors

If you need to refer to two or more sources at the same time, these can be listed, separated by semicolons (;). The sources should be ordered by year of publication with the most recent first.

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Roberts, 2005; Smith et al., 1998).

If more than one item was published in the same year, they should be listed alphabetically by author surname.

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Salmon, 2001; Andrews et al., 1998; Jones and Baker, 1998).

Sources written in the same year by the same author(s)

If two or more sources have the same author(s) and are from the same year, they should be distinguished by adding a lower-case letter after the year (a, b, c, etc).

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998a). In a work published later that year, Jones (1998b) proposed that...

If you want to make a single reference to multiple sources from the same year by the same author, you can cite the sources together using the lower-case letters.

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998a; 1998b).

Sources written by the same author(s) in different years

If you need to refer to two or more sources by the same author in different years, there is no need to keep repeating the author's surname in the citation.

Include the surname and the most recent year first, then separate the other years by semicolons (;). The sources should be ordered by year of publication,  with the most recent first.

Example:
(Smith, 2013; 2005; 2001)

You must include all of the sources separately in your reference list or bibliography. 

When to include page numbers

You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

Example:
"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 1998, p.24).

When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.

Example:
p.7 or pp.20-29.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.

Example:

(Amis, 1958, iv)


Missing information

No author

First check whether there is a corporate author. If there is no individual or corporate author, it is acceptable to use Anon for work that is anonymous.

You should also use Anon in your reference list or bibliography.

No date

If you are referencing a book that has only a copyright year, you can use this date preceded with a c, eg c2008.

If there is no publication date and no copyright date, use [no date].

Examples:

In-text citation:
Jones (no date) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

Reference list:
Jones, M. [no date]. Citations and referencing. London: Longmans, Green and Co. 

No page numbers

If you are citing a source that has no page numbers, use (no pagination) in the in-text citation.

Example:

"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 1998, no pagination).

If you are citing specific information from a website that does not have page numbers, you do not need to include anything to indicate this in the in-text citation.

Page numbers are normally only included in your reference list or bibliography for a few types of reference, eg journal articles, newspapers, chapters in edited books. If the source has no page numbers, use [no pagination].

Example:

Pajunen, K. 2008. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 39(4), [no pagination].


Citing irregular sources

Book introduction, foreword or preface

When citing part of a work that has been written by someone other than the author (eg an introduction written by an editor), give the name of the section author:

(Malcolm, 2012, p.15) 

Malcolm (2012, p.15) suggests.... 

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them:

(Amis, 1958, iv) 

Chapters in edited books

Use the author of the chapter in your citation, then give the full reference to the chapter in your bibliography (again, under the author of the chapter's name).

Examples:
In-text citation:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998).

Reference list:
Jones, M. 1998. Citations in the text. In: Smith, T. ed. Citing and Referencing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp.15-27. 

e-book via e-book reader

Cite sources from an e-book reader in exactly the same way as any other source, usually by the author's surname and year of publication.

In your reference list or bibliography, you need to indicate in your reference that you were using an e-book formatted for a particular e-reader.

Page numbers

You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text. If there are no page numbers, include chapter, section and paragraph number, if available, following the format given in the example below:

Example:

(Smith, 2013, Chapter 2, Section 1, para. 8)

Sometimes there may only be limited information available, such as the chapter number. If that is the case, just include the information that is available to you:

Example:

(Smith, 2013, Chapter 2)

If none of this information is available, use (no pagination):

Example:

(Smith, 2008, no pagination)

Films, videos and broadcasts

If you refer to a film, video or broadcast, you should cite the title and the date.

When the title is not mentioned in the text, the citation should consist of the title and the date in brackets:

Example:
The way the characters interact reveals... (The Godfather, 1972)

If you have already named the title in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
The way the characters interact in The Godfather (1972) reveals...

Government documents (acts, bills, command papers etc.)

Bills, Acts and Statutory Instruments

The full title of the document is used as the citation.

Examples:
(Access to Justice Act 1999)
(Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Bill 2013-14)
(The Bathing Water Regulations 2013)

Command papers, Departmental circulars, House of Commons/Lords papers

Use the Government department/committee/organisation in place of the author.

Examples:
(Home Office, 2003)
(Lord Chancellor's Department and Department of Health, 1993)
(National Audit Office, 2005)

Images, figures, tables and diagrams

You should provide an in-text citation for any photographs, images, tables, diagrams, graphs, figures or illustrations that you reproduce in your work.

The full reference should direct the reader to the source (eg the book or website) from which the item was taken. The citation would normally be given after the title of the figure, table, diagram, etc. 

Example:
Figure 1, A four pointed star (Jones, 2008, p.54).

A reference within the text to a table, graph, diagram, etc. taken from a source should include the author, date and page number to enable the reader to identify the data.

Example:
(Jones, 2008, p.33)

If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such.

Example:
(United Nations, 1975, cited in Smith, 2005, p.33)

If you use a table/graph, etc. from a source and then adapt it to use in your own assignment, you must make that clear in your reference.

We would suggest something along the lines of:
Figure 1, Title, based on Smith, 2005, p.22.

Poems

You should refer to the name of the poem and the poet in the main body of your work, and include a citation to the anthology in which it appears.

Example:
Geoffrey Hill's The Guardians (Ferguson et al., 2005, p.1832) was well received by critics in 1959.

In the bibliography, you should refer only to the anthology in which the poem was published:

Ferguson, M. et al. 2005. The Norton anthology of poetry. 5th ed. London: W.W. Norton.

Religious texts

Make clear in the main body of the work which particular religious text you are referring to. When referring to a specific passage, include the following details in your citation:

(Name of the Book Sura / Chapter: Verse)

Example:

Cain's offering of crops (Genesis 4:3) has been interpreted as...

When citing whole consecutive chapters, combine the first and last chapter numbers with a hyphen: (Genesis 4-6) 

When citing consecutive verses in a particular chapter, combine the first and last verse numbers with a hyphen: (Genesis 4:3-8) 

If your work focuses on a single chapter in a religious work and you are citing only one verse, use the format (v.3). If referring to multiple consecutive verses, use the format (vv.3-8)

For religious texts, you do not include page numbers in your citations.

Websites or webpages

When citing material found on a website, you should cite it like any other source, usually the author surname in brackets and the date. Do not include the URL of the website in your citation.

You may find that there is not always a personal author. In this case you should identify the corporate author.

The publication date of websites can often be found at the bottom of a webpage.

If you are citing specific information from a website that does not have page numbers, you do not need to include anything to indicate this in the in-text citation.