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Leeds Harvard: Music

Reference examples

Recorded music

Individual piece of recorded music:

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator/composer). Year. Title. Name of recording artist. Title of album. [Medium]. Place of publication: Label. 


Gallagher, N. 1994. Live forever. Oasis. Definitely maybe. [CD]. London: Creation Records. 


Name of recording artist. Year. Title of album. [Medium]. Place of publication: Label. 


Oasis. 1994. Definitely maybe. [CD]. London: Creation Records.

Sheet music/Musical score

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator/composer). Year of publication. Title. [Medium]. Place of publication: Publisher.


Handel, G.F. 1890. Serse. Ombra mai fù ; arr. [Musical Score]. London: Augener Ltd.

Live performance of music

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of originator/composer). Year written. Title. [Live performance]. Name of performing artist. Date seen, location.


Springsteen, B. 1975. Born to run. [Live performance]. Bruce Springsteen. 15 June 2013, Wembley Stadium, London.

Chopin, F. 1830. Piano concerto no 2. [Live performance]. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. 26 January 2013, Leeds Town Hall, Leeds.

Citation examples

Author and date

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.


It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.


Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.

Corporate author

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.


According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: