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Leeds Numeric: Journal article (online)

Reference examples

Include the full title of the journal in your reference. Abbreviated titles are not used in the Leeds Numeric style.

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

One author

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Example:

El Gharras, H. Polyphenols: food sources, properties and applications - a review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. [Online]. 2009, 44(12), pp.2512-2518. [Accessed 10 June 2016]. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S). and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Example:

Selmke, M. and Cichos, F. Photonic Rutherford scattering: a classical and quantum mechanical analogy in ray and wave optics. American Journal of Physics. [Online]. 2013, 81(6), pp.405-413. [Accessed 10 June 2016]. Available from: http://0-scitation.aip.org.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

More than two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Example:

Royall, C.P., Thiel, B.L., and Donald, A.M. Radiation damage of water in environmental scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy. [Online]. 2001, 204(3), pp.185-195. [Accessed 10 June 2016]. Available from: http://0-www3.interscience.wiley.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/

Articles that use article numbers

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year, Volume, article no: article number [no pagination]. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Example:

Chou, C.L., Teherani, A., Masters, D.E., Vener, M., Wamsley, M. and Poncelet, A. Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships. Medical Education Online. [Online]. 2014, 19, article no: 25809 [no pagination]. [Accessed 8 January 2017]. Available from: http://med-ed-online.net/index.php/meo/article/view/25809

Pre-print and post-print articles 

A pre-print is an journal article that has not yet undergone peer review. A post-print is an article that has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. You will often find these articles in online repositories or archives.

Pre-print article
Family name, INITIAL(S). [Pre-print]. Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year written. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Example:

Grachev, A.A., Leo, L.S., Di Sabatino, S., Fernando, H.J.S., Pardyjak, E.R. and Fairall, C.W. [Pre-print]. Structure of turbulence in katabatic flows below and above the wind-speed maximum. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. [Online]. 2014. [Accessed 13 January 2017]. Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.02297v1

Post-print article
Family name, INITIAL(S). [Post-print]. Title of article. Journal Title. [Online]. Year written. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Almukhtar, A., Khambay, B.S., Ayoub, A., Ju, X., Al-Hiyali, A., Macdonald, J., Jabar, N. and Goto, T. [Post-print]. "Direct DICOM slice landmarking" A novel research technique to quantify skeletal changes in orthognathic surgery. PLoS One. [Online]. 2015. [Accessed 2 December 2016]. Available from: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/87690/

Citation examples

Standard citation

Every citation should be labelled within your text by using a number in brackets (1).
You should insert the citation number directly after a source is referred to in your text, even if this is in the middle of your sentence. It is acceptable to place a citation number at the end of a paragraph, if the entire paragraph is referring to the same source.

Examples:
Aitchison (1) suggests that language change is inevitable, but not a bad thing.
One leading expert suggests that language change is inevitable, but is not a bad thing (1).

The first item you cite is allocated number 1, the second item is allocated number 2, and so on throughout your piece of work.

Once a source has been allocated a number, this number is used again if you refer to the same source at a later point in your work.

When to include page numbers

You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.

Example:

"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (1, p.24).

When referencing a single page, you should use p.

For a range of pages, use pp.

Example:

p.7 or pp.20-29.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.

Example:

(5, iv)

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Numeric you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Numeric.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: