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Leeds Numeric: Sound recording

Reference examples

Sound recording (physical copy eg on CD)

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of recordist) or Company name. Title of individual recording. Title of album. [Sound recording]. Place of recording: Label, year.


BBC. Country pub at lunchtime. Essential sound effects of England. [Sound recording]. London: BBC Enterprises, 1994.

Sound recording (online)

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of recordist) or Company name. Year. Title. [Sound recording]. Year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL


Watts, D. Oriolus larvatus: African Black-headed Oriole - Oriolidae. [Sound recording]. 1984. [Accessed 15 July 2017]. Available from:

Citation examples

Standard citation

Every citation should be labelled within your text by using a number in brackets (1).
You should insert the citation number directly after a source is referred to in your text, even if this is in the middle of your sentence. It is acceptable to place a citation number at the end of a paragraph, if the entire paragraph is referring to the same source.

Aitchison (1) suggests that language change is inevitable, but not a bad thing.
One leading expert suggests that language change is inevitable, but is not a bad thing (1).

The first item you cite is allocated number 1, the second item is allocated number 2, and so on throughout your piece of work.

Once a source has been allocated a number, this number is used again if you refer to the same source at a later point in your work.

If you use the name of the author(s) of a souce within the text and there are three or more authors for the source, then the name of the first author shoule be given, followed by the phrase "et al.".


Southgate et al. (1) emphasised that references should be presented in a consistent manner.

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Numeric you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Numeric.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: