Family name, INITIAL(S) (of interviewee). Year. Interview with (name of interviewer). Date, location.
Thompson, D. 2016. Interview with J. Smith. 4 August, Leeds.
Interviews you conducted yourself
If you have carried out several interviews that you are using as primary research data for analysis in a research project, then it is not necessary to provide references for each of them in your reference list. You should check with your tutor about the most appropriate way to present the interviews in your work, for example including transcripts in appendices. You may also need to seek permission from the interviewee(s).
If you have interviewed someone and want to include a quote from this as evidence to support an argument you are making in an essay (i.e. not as data for analysis in a research project), then you should reference this as shown in the example above.
Author and date
When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.
It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).
If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.
Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.
Three or more authors
If a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase "et al."
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2017).
Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.
Leeds Harvard does not use ibid to refer to previously cited items. If you are citing the same item twice in a row (i.e. you do not cite any other items in the text between the two citations) you must write the full citation again.
Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent and argued that referencing is a key part of academic integrity. Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research (Jones et al., 2017).
When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you:
- Online items
- URL web addresses
- Multiple authors
- Corporate author(s) or organisation(s)
- Multiple publisher details
- Editions and reprints
- Missing details
- Multiple sources with different authors
- Sources written by the same author in the same year
- Sources with the same author in different years
- Two authors with the same surname in the same year
- The work of one author referred to by another
- Anonymising sources for confidentiality