Video (recorded eg on DVD or videocassette)
Reference this using the same format as Film.
Screen name or username. Year. Title. [Online]. [Date Accessed]. Available from: URL
Common Craft. 2008. Twitter in plain English. [Online]. [Accessed 19 August 2019]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddO9idmax0o
Film, video or broadcast
If you refer to a film, video, video game or broadcast, you should cite the title and the date.
When the title is not mentioned in the text, the citation should consist of the title and the date in brackets:
The way the characters interact reveals... (The Godfather, 1972)
If you have already named the title in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.
The way the characters interact in The Godfather (1972) reveals...
If you are referring to a particular scene or quote, you should include in the citation the times (hours, minutes and seconds) between which it takes place in the film.
The conversation between the characters Rhett Butler and Scarlett O'Hara reveals... (Gone with the Wind, 1939, 01:32:03-01:33:05).
Author and date
When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.
It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).
If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.
Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.
Three or more authors
If a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase "et al."
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2017).
Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.
Leeds Harvard does not use ibid to refer to previously cited items. If you are citing the same item twice in a row (i.e. you do not cite any other items in the text between the two citations) you must write the full citation again.
Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent and argued that referencing is a key part of academic integrity. Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research (Jones et al., 2017).
If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.
According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you:
- Online items
- URL web addresses
- Multiple authors
- Corporate author(s) or organisation(s)
- Multiple publisher details
- Editions and reprints
- Missing details
- Multiple sources with different authors
- Sources written by the same author in the same year
- Sources with the same author in different years
- Two authors with the same surname in the same year
- The work of one author referred to by another
- Anonymising sources for confidentiality