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Leeds Harvard introduction

Leeds Harvard basics

The University uses a variation of the Harvard referencing style called Leeds Harvard.

To reference in Leeds Harvard:

  • Insert an in-text citation and a corresponding reference in an alphabetical list at the end of your work for every source you quote, paraphrase, summarise or refer to.
  • Include the author's surname (family name) and year of publication in the citation, and the full details of the item in the reference.
  • Include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table etc from a source.

If your school has asked you to reference using the Leeds version of Harvard, then your tutors should also follow this guidance when marking.

How to incorporate citations into your work

It is good practice to vary the way you incorporate in-text citations; this will help enhance the flow and style of your academic writing.

You may sometimes use the author's name in the text, or just refer to the author in brackets, and citations might appear at the start, middle or end of your sentences.

You can also refer to multiple authors at once; this will not only help to make your writing more succinct, but will also improve the synthesis of sources, research or ideas within your assignments.


  • Biggs and Smith (2012) offer a convincing argument...
  • In contrast, Grayson (2012) identified the main determinant as...
  • Ramirez (2010), Schneider (2011) and Roberts (2013) discuss the challenges faced by...
  • There seems to be a correlation between students' use of the library and high degree marks (Stone and Collins, 2012).
  • The research of Dalton (2012) has been challenged by...
  • A number of studies have shown that ... (Richards, 2007; Graham, 2009; Elston, 2011; Chan, 2012)
  • Socio-economic factors such as class and education, as well as "hereditary determinants" (Civaner and Arda, 2008, p.267), can have a detrimental effect on an individual's health.

Further help

For more information, take a look at the following handy resources and guides: