Comic books/graphic novels are created collaboratively and so referencing can be complex. Credit should first be given to the writer/author of the story, indicated by (w) after his/her name. This should be followed by the name of the penciller(p), and inker(i). If someone is responsible for both pencilling and inking, then they become the artist and (a) is placed after their name. If the writer/author is also the artist, then place (w, a) after their name.
Comic book / graphic novel
Family name, INITIAL(S)(w), Family name, INITIAL(S)(p) and Family name, INITIAL(S)(i). Story title. Comic book/graphic novel title. Issue number, date. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.
Gardner, F.(w), Sekowsky, M.(p) and Sachs, B.(i). The wheel of misfortune. Justice League of America. Issue 6, Aug-Sep 1961. New York: National Comics Publications, 1961.
Multi story issues
Family name, INITIAL(S)(w), Family name, INITIAL(S)(p) and Family name, INITIAL(S)(i). Story title. Comic book title. Issue number, date, page number(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, year.
Morrison, G.(w) and Yeowell, S.(a). Zenith - prologue: ground zero. 2000 AD. Issue 535, 15 August 1987, pp.1-5. London: Fleetway Publications, 1987.
Comic book title. Story title. Comic book title. Issue number, date, page number(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, year.
Beano. Minnie the Minx. The Beano. Issue 3000, 15 January 2000, p.2. Dundee: DC Thomson, 2000.
For cartoons/comic strips in newspapers, see Newspaper cartoon.
Every citation should be labelled within your text by using a number in brackets (1).
You should insert the citation number directly after a source is referred to in your text, even if this is in the middle of your sentence. It is acceptable to place a citation number at the end of a paragraph, if the entire paragraph is referring to the same source.
Aitchison (1) suggests that language change is inevitable, but not a bad thing.
One leading expert suggests that language change is inevitable, but is not a bad thing (1).
The first item you cite is allocated number 1, the second item is allocated number 2, and so on throughout your piece of work.
Once a source has been allocated a number, this number is used again if you refer to the same source at a later point in your work.
When to include page numbers
You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.
"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (1, p.24).
When referencing a single page, you should use p.
For a range of pages, use pp.
p.7 or pp.20-29.
If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.
When you're referencing with Leeds Numeric you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Numeric.
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