Skip to main content

Leeds Numeric: E-book (online or via e-book reader)

Reference examples

e-book online

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. [Online]. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, year. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL


Hollensen, S. Global marketing: a decision oriented approach. [Online]. 5th ed. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2011. [Accessed 26 May 2017]. Available from:

e-book reader format, eg Kindle

Family name, INITIAL(S). Title. Edition (if not first edition). [Name of e-book reader]. Place of publication: Publisher, year.


Wu, T. The master switch: the rise and fall of information empires. [Kindle DX e-book]. London: Atlantic Books, 2010.

Citation examples

Standard citation

Every citation should be labelled within your text by using a number in brackets (1).
You should insert the citation number directly after a source is referred to in your text, even if this is in the middle of your sentence. It is acceptable to place a citation number at the end of a paragraph, if the entire paragraph is referring to the same source.

Aitchison (1) suggests that language change is inevitable, but not a bad thing.
One leading expert suggests that language change is inevitable, but is not a bad thing (1).

The first item you cite is allocated number 1, the second item is allocated number 2, and so on throughout your piece of work.

Once a source has been allocated a number, this number is used again if you refer to the same source at a later point in your work.

If you use the name of the author(s) of a souce within the text and there are three or more authors for the source, then the name of the first author shoule be given, followed by the phrase "et al.".


Southgate et al. (1) emphasised that references should be presented in a consistent manner.

When to include page numbers (e-books)

You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source. 

"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (1, p.24).
When referencing a single page, you should use p.
For a range of pages, use pp.
p.7 or pp.20-29.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.


(5, iv)

If there are no page numbers, include chapter, section and paragraph number, if available, following the format given in the example below:


(1, Chapter 2, Section 1, para. 8)

Sometimes there may only be limited information available, such as the chapter number. If that is the case, just include the information that is available to you:


(1, Chapter 2) 

If none of this information is available, use (no pagination):


(1, no pagination)

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Numeric you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Numeric.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: