Include the full title of the journal in your reference. Abbreviated titles are not used in the Leeds Numeric style.
Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.
Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers.
Pajunen, K. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 2008, 39(4), pp.652-669.
Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers.
Gencturk, B. and Hosseini, F. Evaluation of reinforced concrete and reinforced engineered cementitious composite (EGC) members and structures using small-scale testing. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2015, 42(3), pp.164-177.
More than two authors
Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Title of article. Journal Title. Year, Volume(issue number), page numbers.
MacNaughton, S.J., Stephen, J.R., Venosa, A.D. and Chang, Y.J. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1999, 65(8), pp.3566-3574.
Every citation should be labelled within your text by using a number in brackets (1).
You should insert the citation number directly after a source is referred to in your text, even if this is in the middle of your sentence. It is acceptable to place a citation number at the end of a paragraph, if the entire paragraph is referring to the same source.
Aitchison (1) suggests that language change is inevitable, but not a bad thing.
One leading expert suggests that language change is inevitable, but is not a bad thing (1).
The first item you cite is allocated number 1, the second item is allocated number 2, and so on throughout your piece of work.
Once a source has been allocated a number, this number is used again if you refer to the same source at a later point in your work.
When to include page numbers
You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.
"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (1, p.24).
When referencing a single page, you should use p.
For a range of pages, use pp.
p.7 or pp.20-29.
If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.
When you're referencing with Leeds Numeric you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Numeric.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you: