Image, figure, table or diagram
You should provide an in-text citation for any photographs, images, tables, diagrams, graphs, figures or illustrations that you reproduce in your work. The citation would normally be given after the title of the figure, table, diagram, etc.
Figure 1, A four pointed star (Jones, 2015, p.54).
A reference within the text to a table, graph, diagram, etc. taken from a source should include the author, date and page number in brackets to enable the reader to identify the data.
(Jones, 2015, p.33)
If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year and page number needs to be mentioned in brackets.
Jones (2015, p.33) gave a detailed figures on the rapid increase of trade union membership during the twentieth century.
If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such.
(United Nations, 1975, cited in Smith, 2016, p.33)
If you use a table/graph, etc. from a source and then adapt it to use in your own assignment, you must make that clear in your reference.
We would suggest something along the lines of:
Figure 1, Title, based on Smith, 2005, p.22.
If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.
According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you:
- Online items
- URL web addresses
- Multiple authors
- Corporate author(s) or organisation(s)
- Multiple publisher details
- Editions and reprints
- Missing details
- Multiple sources with different authors
- Sources written by the same author in the same year
- Sources with the same author in different years
- Two authors with the same surname in the same year
- The work of one author referred to by another
- Anonymising sources for confidentiality