Include the full title of the journal in your reference. Abbreviated titles are not used in the Leeds Harvard style.
Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.
Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume(issue number), page numbers.
Pajunen, K. 2008. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 39(4), pp.652-669.
Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume(issue number), page numbers.
Gencturk, B. and Hosseini, F. 2015. Evaluation of reinforced concrete and reinforced engineered cementitious composite (EGC) members and structures using small-scale testing. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 42(3), pp.164-177.
More than two authors
Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume(issue number), page numbers.
MacNaughton, S.J., Stephen, J.R., Venosa, A.D. and Chang, Y.J. 1999. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65(8), pp.3566-3574.
Author and date
When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.
It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).
If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.
Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.
If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.
According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
When to include page numbers
You should include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.
"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 2017, p.24).
When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.
p.7 or pp.20-29.
If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.
(Amis, 1958, iv)
When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you:
- Online items
- URL web addresses
- Multiple authors
- Corporate author(s)
- Multiple publisher details
- Missing details
- Multiple sources with different authors
- Sources written by the same author in the same year
- Sources with the same author in different years
- Two authors with the same surname in the same year
- The work of one author referred to by another