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Leeds Harvard: Journal article

Reference examples

Include the full title of the journal in your reference. Abbreviated titles are not used in the Leeds Harvard style.

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

One author

Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Pajunen, K. 2008. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 39(4), pp.652-669.

Two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Gencturk, B. and Hosseini, F. 2015. Evaluation of reinforced concrete and reinforced engineered cementitious composite (EGC) members and structures using small-scale testing. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 42(3), pp.164-177. 

More than two authors

Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S), Family name, INITIAL(S) and Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

MacNaughton, S.J., Stephen, J.R., Venosa, A.D. and Chang, Y.J. 1999. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65(8), pp.3566-3574.

Citation examples

Author and date

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.

Example:

It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.

Example:

Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.

Corporate author

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.

Example:

According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
 

When to include page numbers

You should include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.

Example:

"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 2017, p.24).

When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.

Example:

p.7 or pp.20-29.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.

Example:

(Amis, 1958, iv)

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: