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Leeds Harvard: Image

Reference examples

If you refer to an image that you have found in a printed source, eg a book, you must provide a reference for that source. Check with your tutor about the most appropriate way to present images in your work, eg including a list of images in an appendix.

It is not necessary to provide a reference in your bibliography for an image that you have created yourself.

Online image

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the originator). Year. Title of image. [Online]. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Examples:

Bowry, J. 2013. Telephone boxes in the snow. [Online]. [Accessed 10 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.flickr.com/

Picasso, P. 1925. The Dance. [Online]. [Accessed 4 March 2017]. Available from: http://www.oxfordartonline.com

Original image or photograph

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the originator). Year. Title. [Material type]. At: Place: holding institution, department (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable).

Example:

Roux, E. 1915. Photograph taken at Gallipoli by Ernest Roux. [Photograph]. At: Leeds: Leeds University Library. Liddle Collection, FR 31.

Original image or photograph (missing details)

If there is no originator, start your reference with the image title. If there is no title, start with a description.

Title. Year. [Material type]. At: Place: holding institution, department (if applicable). Identifier (if applicable).

Example:

Photograph of two members of the Shaikevich family. c1920. [Photograph]. At: Leeds: Leeds University Library, Leeds Russian Archive Collection. MS 1210.

Citation examples

Image, figure, table or diagram

You should provide an in-text citation for any photographs, images, tables, diagrams, graphs, figures or illustrations that you reproduce in your work. The citation would normally be given after the title of the figure, table, diagram, etc.

Example:
Figure 1, A four pointed star (Jones, 2015, p.54).

A reference within the text to a table, graph, diagram, etc. taken from a source should include the author, date and page number in brackets to enable the reader to identify the data.

Example:
(Jones, 2015, p.33)

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year and page number needs to be mentioned in brackets.

Example:

Jones (2015, p.33) gave a detailed figures on the rapid increase of trade union membersip during the twentieth century.

If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such.

Example:
(United Nations, 1975, cited in Smith, 2016, p.33)

If you use a table/graph, etc. from a source and then adapt it to use in your own assignment, you must make that clear in your reference.

We would suggest something along the lines of:
Figure 1, Title, based on Smith, 2005, p.22.

Corporate author

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.

Example:

According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
 

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: