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Leeds Harvard: Speech

Reference examples

Live speech

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Year of speech. Title of speech. Date of speech, location of speech.

Example:

Obama, B. 2008. A more perfect union. 18 March, National Constitution Centre, Philadelphia.

Recording of a speech viewed online

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Year of speech. Title of speech. [Online]. Date of speech, location of speech. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Example:

Obama, B. 2008. A more perfect union. [Online]. 18 March, National Constitution Centre, Philadelphia. [Accessed 10 June 2017]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHuDLM-xiBo

Broadcast of a speech on television or radio

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the speaker). Year of speech. Title of speech. Date of speech, location of speech. Title of programme. Transmitting organisation/channel. Date of original transmission.

Example:

Obama, B. 2008. A more perfect union. 18 March, National Constitution Centre, Philadelphia. Newsnight. BBC. 1 September 2008.

Transcript of a speech

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of speaker). Year of speech. Title of speech. In: Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed(s). Year. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.

Example:

Clinton, H. 2011. Strength in resilience. In: Wilson, H. ed. 2012. Representative American speeches 2011-2012. Ipswich, MA.: H.W. Wilson, pp.97-100.

Citation examples

Author and date

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.

Example:

It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.

Example:

Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.

Corporate author

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.

Example:

According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
 

When to include page numbers

You should include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.

Example:

"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 2017, p.24).

When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.

Example:

p.7 or pp.20-29.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.

Example:

(Amis, 1958, iv)

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you: