Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
Adams, A.D. 1906. Electric transmission of water power. New York: McGraw.
Finch, E. and Fafinski, S. 2015. Legal skills. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
If you are referencing a book with an editor rather than an author, this should be indicated in the reference.
Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed(s). Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
Crandell, K.A. ed. 1999. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Wexler, P., van der Kolk, J., Mohapatra, A. and Agarwal, R. eds. 2012. Chemicals, environment, health: a global management perspective. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.
For an edited book with chapters written by different authors, see Book chapter (in an edited book).
Author and editor
Family name, INITIAL(S) of author. Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Family name, INITIAL(S) of editor. ed(s). Place of publication: Publisher.
Hobbes, T. 2012. Leviathan. Malcolm, N. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Author and date
When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.
It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).
If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.
Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.
If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.
According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
When to include page numbers
You should include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.
"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 2017, p.24).
When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.
p.7 or pp.20-29.
If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.
(Amis, 1958, iv)
When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you:
- Online items
- URL web addresses
- Multiple authors
- Corporate author(s)
- Multiple publisher details
- Missing details
- Multiple sources with different authors
- Sources written by the same author in the same year
- Sources with the same author in different years
- Two authors with the same surname in the same year
- The work of one author referred to by another