Comic books/graphic novels are created collaboratively and so referencing can be complex. Credit should first be given to the writer/author of the story, indicated by (w) after their name. This should be followed by the name of the penciller(p), and inker(i). If someone is responsible for both pencilling and inking, then they become the artist and (a) is placed after their name. If the writer/author is also the artist, then place (w, a) after their name.
Comic book / graphic novel
Family name, INITIAL(S)(w), Family name, INITIAL(S)(p) and Family name, INITIAL(S)(i). Year. Story title. Comic book/graphic novel title. Issue number, date. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Gardner, F.(w), Sekowsky, M.(p) and Sachs, B.(i). 1961. The wheel of misfortune. Justice League of America. Issue 6, Aug-Sep 1961. New York: National Comics Publications.
Multi story issues
Family name, INITIAL(S)(w), Family name, INITIAL(S)(p) and Family name, INITIAL(S)(i). Year. Story title. Comic book title. Issue number, date, page number(s). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Morrison, G.(w) and Yeowell, S.(a). 1987. Zenith - prologue: ground zero. 2000 AD. Issue 535, 15 August 1987, pp.1-5. London: Fleetway Publications.
Comic book title. Year. Story title. Comic book title. Issue number, date, page number(s). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Beano. 2000. Minnie the Minx. The Beano. Issue 3000, 15 January 2000, p.2. Dundee: DC Thomson.
For cartoons/comic strips in newspapers, see Newspaper cartoon.
Author and date
When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.
It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).
If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.
Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.
Three or more authors
If a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase "et al."
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2017).
Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.
Leeds Harvard does not use ibid to refer to previously cited items. If you are citing the same item twice in a row (i.e. you do not cite any other items in the text between the two citations) you must write the full citation again.
Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent and argued that referencing is a key part of academic integrity. Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research (Jones et al., 2017).
When to include page numbers
You should include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.
"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 2017, p.24).
When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.
p.7 or pp.20-29.
If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.
(Amis, 1958, iv)
If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.
According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).
When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.
Skip straight to the issue that affects you:
- Online items
- URL web addresses
- Multiple authors
- Corporate author(s) or organisation(s)
- Multiple publisher details
- Editions and reprints
- Missing details
- Multiple sources with different authors
- Sources written by the same author in the same year
- Sources with the same author in different years
- Two authors with the same surname in the same year
- The work of one author referred to by another
- Anonymising sources for confidentiality